How to Safely Encode URLs in PHP with urlencode

When building web applications, it’s common to pass data in URLs. However, URLs can contain characters that have special meanings in certain contexts, such as spaces or question marks. To avoid these problems, we can use urlencode to encode URLs. In this article, we’ll cover how to use urlencode to encode URLs safely.

What is urlencode?

urlencode is a PHP function that encodes a string for use in a URL. This means that any special characters in the string are converted into a format that can be safely used in a URL. For example, spaces are converted to %20 and question marks are converted to %3F.

Why is urlencode important?

When a user submits a form or clicks a link, the browser sends the data in the URL to the server. If the URL contains characters that have special meanings, it can cause problems. For example, if a user enters a space in a form field, the browser will include a space in the URL. However, spaces have special meanings in URLs and can cause problems. By using urlencode, we can ensure that the data in the URL is safe and won’t cause problems.

How to use urlencode

Using urlencode is simple. Here’s an example:

$string = "Hello, World!";
$encoded = urlencode($string);
echo $encoded;

As you can see, urlencode has converted the comma to %2C and the exclamation mark to %21. It has also converted the space to a plus sign (+).

Note that urlencode only encodes the characters that have special meanings in URLs. Other characters, such as letters and numbers, are not encoded.

How to decode a URL encoded string

If you need to decode a URL encoded string, you can use the urldecode function. Here’s an example:

$string = "Hello%2C+World%21";
$decoded = urldecode($string);
echo $decoded;
Hello, World!

As you can see, urldecode has decoded the %2C to a comma and the + sign to a space.

Best practices for using urlencode

While urlencode is a powerful tool for encoding URLs, there are some best practices you should follow to ensure that your URLs are safe and effective.

Encode all user-generated data: Whenever a user submits data that will be used in a URL, you should encode it with urlencode. This includes form data, query parameters, and any other data that will be included in a URL.

Use rawurlencode for path segments: If you’re encoding a path segment of a URL (i.e. the part of the URL between the domain name and the query parameters), you should use the rawurlencode function instead of urlencode. rawurlencode encodes all characters except for letters, numbers, and the following characters: -_.~. This ensures that the path segment is safe and won’t cause problems.

Use urlencode for query parameters: If you’re encoding a query parameter (i.e. the part of the URL after the question mark), you should use urlencode. This ensures that the query parameter is encoded properly and won’t cause problems.

Be consistent: When encoding URLs, it’s important to be consistent. Use the same encoding function throughout your code to ensure that all URLs are encoded properly.


In conclusion, urlencode is an essential tool for encoding URLs safely in PHP. By following best practices and using urlencode consistently, you can ensure that your URLs are safe and effective.

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